ועדת שטרום. למה זה טוב?

טור אישי דעת יחיד

השבוע הטור שלי לא יעסוק בשחיתות שלטונית. הפעם אני רוצה להפנות זרקור לשר בממשלה. לשר משה כחלון שהצטרף לממשלה כדי לעבוד לטובת אזרחי המדינה.

כחלון הציב 2 נושאים  במרכז עשייתו במשרד האוצר. האחד הגדלת הצע הדירות לזוגות צעירים ופיצוץ בועת מחירי הדירות והשני מאבק בריכוזיות הבנקים ובכוחם המופרז במשק הישראלי.

הטור הזה יעסוק בנושא השני , כיוון שרק לאחרונה, סיימה ועדת הרפורמות בכנסת לגבש את חוק שטרום שאמור להחליש את כוחם של הבנקים.

לכולנו זכורות פרשיות השחיתויות בהן היו מעורבים שני הבנקים הגדולים בשנים האחרונות. כמו פרשת הלבנת ההון בארה״ב, שבעטיה ספג בנק לאומי קנס של 1.5 מיליארד ש״ח ובנק הפועלים ממתין לתשלום הקנס שיוטל עליו. או פרשות פשיטות הרגל של הטייקונים לשעבר, נוחי דנקנר , פישמן, בן דב מוטי זיסר ולאחרונה ליב לבייב, שלכל אחד מהם הבנקים הלוו בין 4 מיליארד ל-8 מיליארד שח. ולכל אחד מהטייקונים  מחקו הבנקים בין 2 מיליארד ל-4 מיליארד ש״ח, בתהליך תספורת מהיר ואכזרי, שבסופו רשמו הבנקים הפסדים של כ-12 מיליארד שח.

באותו זמן ממש,  המנכ״לים ויושבי הראש של הבנקים לקחו הביתה, כל אחד, כ-8-10 מיליון שח בשנה.

גם לעשות עבודה גרועה ולפגוע בציבור שמפקיד אצלם את כספו וגם לקחת מיליונים רבים הביתה מכספי הציבור, לזה כחלון החליט לשים קץ.

תחילה עבר החוק שהגביל את שכר ממלאי תפקידים בכירים במגזר הפיננסי, ל-2.5 מיליון שח בשנה ואח״כ הגיע התור של חוק שטרום, להחלשת כוחם של הבנקים ועוצמתם הכלכלית הבלתי נתפסת.

אז מה המליצה ועדת שטרום ואיך זה ישנה את עוצמתם של הבנקים במשק הישראלי ?

א. הפרדת חברות כרטיסי האשראי: לאומי קארד וישראכרט, מהבעלות של בנק לאומי ובנק הפועלים. שתי חברות כרטיסי האשראי מרוויחות כל שנה מעל 400 מיליון שח ביחד. סכום זה ירד מרווחי הבנקים שיאבדו את הבעלות על החברות.

ב. הבנקים לא יוכלו להנפיק יותר מ-50% מכרטיסים האשראי בחברת כרטיסי אשראי אחת. מצב זה ימנע תלות של חברות כרטיסי האשראי בבנק אחד המנפיק את הכרטיסים אצלם. כלומר כל בנק יצטרך להנפיק כרטיסים ללקוחותיו בשתי חברות כרטיסי אשראי לפחות.

היום, שני הבנקים הגדולים מנפיקים כרטיסי אשראי ללקוחותיהם רק בחברות הבנות שלהם: בנק הפועלים בישראכרט  ובנק לאומי בלאומי קארד.

ג. הבנקים יאלצו לצמצם בחצי את המסגרות בכרטיסי האשראי, שיתנו ללקוחת וע״י כך הלקוחות שירצו מסגרות  נוספות יצטרכו לפנות ישירות לחברות כרטיסי האשראי ולבקש מהם כרטיס עם מסגרת  נוספת. הבנקים מרוויחים כסף רב מניצול המסגרות בכרטיסי האשראי של לקוחותיהם. מגבלה זאת תביא לשחיקת רווחיותם.

ד. חברות כרטיסי האשראי יוכלו להשתמש במידע שברשותם על לקוחות הבנקים כדי לפנות אליהם ולהציע להם כרטיסים ואשראי. יש לזה תרומה משמעותית ליכולת השיווק של חברות האשראי, שאין להן סניפים והן לא נפגשות עם הלקוחות.

ה. הבנקים ידרשו להציג את יתרת העו״ש בחשבון הלקוח לחברת כרטיסי האשראי, אם הלקוח יבקש זאת. זה יאפשר לחברות האשראי לתת שרות יותר טוב ללקוחות ולא לחייבם בסכומים שיגרמו לחריגה ממסגרת העו״ש.

המטרה של כל התקנות האלה היא לאפשר לחברות כרטיסי האשראי להתחרות בבנקים במתן אשראי ללקוחות.

כיום כ-95% מהאשראי שמשקי הבית לוקחים,  ניתן ע״י הבנקים ומגדיל מאוד את שורת הרווח שלהם. הצפי שחלק ניכר מהאשראי, יעבור לחברות האשראי המופרטות.

כאשר ייפרדו חברות האשראי מהבנקים ההחלטות שהן יקבלו לא יהיו כפופות לאישור הבנקים שהן בבעלותם, ולכן השיקול יהיה שונה ויתכן שיבוא על חשבון רווחי הבנקים.

כמובן שהבנקים התנגדו לועדת שטרום והפעילו לוביסטים רבים כדי למסמס את מסקנותיה, אבל נחרצות שר האוצר אפשרה את סיום עבודת הועדה וגיבוש הצעת החוק, שעומדת כעת להצבעת הכנסת.

החלשת הבנקים תאלץ אותם להתייעל. כיום הם גופים כבדים ולא יעילים. הם משלמים משכורות מאוד גבהות, השכר עולה כל שנה בממוצע ב-4.5% ורמת היעילות שלהם נמוכה מבין הבנקים בעולם המערבי. כמובן שחוסר יעילות זאת, מתאפשר מחוסר התחרות ועולה לציבור כסף רב בעמלות ורביות גבהות, שהלקוחות משלמים עבור האשראי שהבנקים מעמידים לרשותם.

חברות כרטיסי האשראי המופרדות מהבנקים אמורות ליצור את התחרות המקווה ואיתה את ההתייעלות שתביא להורדת העלויות המיותרות בהוצאות הבנקים.

בשנים האחרונות הבנקים התחילו להבין את ״רוח המפקד״ ומאז שכחלון שר האוצר, הבנקים הגדולים צמצמו בכ-3,000 עובדים את מצבת העובדים הקבועה שלהם. נסגרו סניפים לא יעילים והרבה פעולות בנקאיות נעשות דרך רשת האינטרנט.

יש עוד הרבה דרך לעבור עד שתהיה תחרות  משוכללת בין הבנקים במדינה, אבל ועדת שטרום עושה את הצעד הראשון והנכון בדרך הזאת.

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252 תגובות

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